Urinary and Genetic Biomonitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Coke Oven Workers: Associations between Exposure, Effect, and Carcinogenic Risk Assessment

Aisha Mohamed Samir, Dalia Abdel-Hamid Shaker, Mona Mohamed Fathy, Salwa Farouk Hafez, Mona Mohsen Abdullatif, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Hany Ahmed Fouad Alghobary


Background: Coke oven workers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with possible genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Metabolizing enzymes genes and DNA repair genes are suspected to be correlated with the level of DNA damage. They may contribute to variable individual sensitivity to DNA damage induced by PAHs exposure at workplace.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between biomarkers of PAHs: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), DNA adducts, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in coke oven workers, and to assess the role of cytochrome P2E1 (CYP2E1) gene expression and DNA repairing gene (XRCC1) polymorphism in detecting workers at risk.

Methods: 85 exposed workers and 85 unexposed controls were enrolled into this study. Urinary 1-OHP, 8-OHdG, and BPDE-DNA adduct were measured. CYP2E1 gene expression and genotyping of XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln were evaluated by real-time PCR.

Results: The median urinary 1-OHP levels (6.3 μmol/mol creatinine), urinary 8-OHdG (7.9 ng/mg creatinine), DNA adducts (6.7 ng/μg DNA) in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the unexposed group. Carriers of the variant allele (Gln) of XRCC1 had the highest levels of 1-OHP, DNA adducts and 8-OHdG, and the lowest level of CYP2E1 gene expression. In exposed workers, significant positive correlations were found between 1-OHP level and each of the work duration, 8-OHdG, and DNA adducts levels. There was a significant negative correlation between 1-OHP level and CYP2E1 gene expression. Work duration and CYP2E1 gene expression were predictors of DNA adducts level; 1-OHP level and work duration were predictors of urinary 8-OHdG level.

Conclusion: Workers with higher exposure to PAH were more prone to oxidative DNA damage and cancer development. DNA adducts level reflects the balance between their production by CYP2E1 and elimination by XRCC1 gene.


Bay-Region, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide [Supplementary concept]; DNA adducts; 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine [Supplementary concept]; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1; X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1; Polymorphism, genetic

doi: 10.15171/ijoem.2019.1541

 pISSN: 2008-6520
 eISSN: 2008-6814

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