Reliability and Validity of an Adapted Questionnaire Assessing Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals among Health Care Workers in Bhutan

Rajni Rai, Sonia El-Zaemey, Nidup Dorji, Lin Fritschi


Background: Collection of reliable and valid occupational history data is of utmost importance to assess work-related exposures and their health effects. Few standardized questionnaires are available for the collection of occupational history data in low-and-middle income countries.

Objective: To adapt and test a validated questionnaire developed in the United States by the National Institute of Safety and Health, in order to assess occupational chemical exposures among health care workers in Bhutan.

Methods: The questionnaire was first adapted to suit the Bhutanese context with the advice of an expert review committee. 30 health care workers then completed the questionnaire at baseline and 10–14 days later. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating Cohen's κ and percentage agreement.

Results: The questionnaire had high test-retest reliability. Cohen's κ ranged from 0.61 to 1.00, and percentage agreement ranged from 86.7% to 100%. Further adaptations included omitting questions on chemicals not available in Bhutan.

Conclusion: The adapted questionnaire is appropriate for assessing occupational chemical exposures among health care workers in Bhutan.


Occupational exposure; Health personnel; Surveys and questionnaires; Advisory committees; Developing countries; Bhutan

doi: 10.34172/ijoem.2020.1878

 pISSN: 2008-6520
 eISSN: 2008-6814

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